Pesticides in Potato

There has been talks about possible presence of glyphosate and other pesticides in tubers such as potato.

I was informed by some that potato being grown some places in Canada might be desiccated by glyphosate prior to harvesting. But according to data received from CFIA, potato were not tested for glyphosate, and the word potato comes up sparingly in the items tested which were processed meals that contained potato. Potato might not have been the main ingredient in those products and the presence of glyphosate was not noted to be high or consistent. So I would say that the CFIA results were not conclusive that potato posed a serious threat to glyphosate poisoning to people.

Anyhow, I asked Anthony Samsel. This is what he said:

Tony,
Glyphosate causes DAMAGE to potato tubers…It is generally only used pre-plant and low levels do get into the tubers.. and cause reduced quality and yield.  The herbicides used pre-harvest to desiccate the vines are generally GLUFOSINATE, DIQUAT (Reglone) …..  
These are necrotic lesions caused by glyphosate in the soil…

necrotic lesions

(Above pictures, as well as the rest, are new to me. I have not seen such potato either in the store or in my backyard. I guess such items are removed before potatoes reach the store shelves. I might not have them because I do not use glyphosate or any industrial pesticide in my residence or garden.)

This is crippled shoot (at left) formation from the potato eyes called Cauliflower formation and is a telltale sign of glyphosate application to the field …

This is tuber cracking (at right) caused by glyphosate exposure from spray drift.

…. most potatoes have residues of herbicides and fungicides such as the fungicide Chlorothalonil… which never should have been allowed into the food supply.  This fungicide causes mammalian embryo fatalities and reductions in live fetuses…  Animal studies show that Chlorothalonil is a probable carcinogen…..
Anthony

The images and the text in blue are from scientist Anthony Samsel of USA. I have never seen such potato either but can understand why or how this might happen.

Meanwhile I did check the issue of Chlorthalonil in potato, among items tested by CFIA. There are more than 2,500 samples of potato tested by CFIA from 2008 till 2016 for presence of Chlorothalonil. Out of them all, only four samples had any chlorothalonil.

The above table shows some of the details available from the only samples that contained Chlorothalonil. For some reason, just one sample, the one on top, representing fresh potato from from the US contained over 3,700 ppb of Chlorothalonil and was in violation. The others contained less than 3 ppb, the last one was declared as organic.

The table is also the link to the full downloadable file of over 2,500 tests done on potato to find Chlorothalonil, by CFIA, between 2008 and 2016.

This is also included in the book Poison Foods of North America.

 

Other pesticides in North American Foods

Poison Foods of North America is mostly designed to help people avoid glyphosate from their daily foods, and is for those that consider glyphosate to be singularly the worst synthetic molecule to be in their food, as a long term agent of health hazard and disease.

But I have also received data on foods tested for other biocides. I am slowly converting parts of this huge database to the public in shorter Pdf files that contain all the raw data as received.

The attached pdf file gives all the samples that tested 2,4-D positive, and excludes all that tested negative. All readings are as originally received except one column. The pesticide level was originally measured in µg/g or in ppm. I have multiplied the readings a thousand fold and expressed the same in parts per billion, or ppb.

You can click the image to go to the pdf file which can be downloaded and expanded for study.

Tony Mitra

Glyphosate in chickpea, lentil and wheat bran

Full set of test results from CFIA on glyphosate in chickpea, lentils and wheat bran, as well as the worst readings for any food groups, as received by self in December 2016, are placed here for reference.

Click on the images to go to the pdf file, which are free for download.

The lentil part is not too clear here since a lot of the processed food samples contained lentil but were described not as lentils but differently, such as this or that meal and snack etc. Those are not included in this list, which is purely what are described as lentils and lentil products by CFIA.

I personally believe that, as long as the Government hides safety test records and raw data involving tests on target animals under exposure to glyphosate and compared with identical animals not exposed, and their health parameters compared through the life span of the animals, its safety is unproven and therefore the people have a right to consider any level of glyphosate in food to be dangerous. The same applies to any and all safe limits (MRL) based on glyphosate.

Therefore, any glyphosate found in any food is essentially a violation of safety and aught to be removed from the stores.

I personally am not interested in discussing science behind either GMO or glyphosate, till such time the Government releases all safety test data on glyphosate for a start, and stop resorting to third party opinions on glyphosate safety. The Canadian government, just as the US and every other government, has been hiding these for over a generation now.

According to my understanding of the law, it is illegal to approve a product while hiding its safety record.

And lastly, here is a list of the worst samples as tested by CFIA where the readings showed presence of glyphosate above 1 ppm (1,000 ppb) and goes up to 12.5 ppm (12500 ppb).

Click on the image to go to the pdf file that can be downloaded and blown up.

Tony Mitra

 

Glyphosate in Organic Chickpea

There has been questions on chickpea and if one can get clean ones if one buys organic.

Well, there are opinions, there are speculations and there are observations from a handful of samples that were tested by CFIA to allow a partial glimpse on the subject.

It is my personal belief that there is no safe way to get hold of glyphosate free chickpea, if one lives in North America, until and unless there is a serious effort at testing locally sold foods at the county or municipal level, and disclosing all those results to the local public every month. That is the reason I had tried to kick start the globally relevant petition for pushing each municipal government to start setting up a budget and start testing local food.

Unfortunately, the world has more people willing to pontificate and less people willing to do something about it – hence petitions like that get no more than 1,400 signatures.

If one does selective testing of three or four organic chickpea grown in Canada, one can find zero glyphosate. But the problem is three fold.

First – CFIA does not disclose brand names of those samples which showed no glyphosate. This is the reason I wanted municipalities to start testing and disclosing all details including brand names and origins and stores that sell them, and for people to start banging their fists on municipal council doors till they cave in (https://www.change.org/p/let-our-government-test-food-for-glyphosate?).

Second – question has been asked, if the organic certification process only ensures that a crop is grown organically, and ignores how the crop is harvested. In other words, one can grow a crop without pesticides, get organic certification and still desiccate it with glyphosate before harvest. If this is true, then that can explain how North American organic chickpea are so extremely contaminated with glyphosate, and how organic certification means absolutely nothing, with regard to glyphosate contamination in some foods grown in North America such as chickpea.

Third – there is always this issue among the CFIA records, regarding ‘unknown’ as country of origin. I suspect some, if not most, of these may have originated in Canada or nearby sources such as the US. Therefore, there is a very high probability of organic chickpea grown anywhere in Canada or the United States will have more samples with glyphosate and less samples without. This further bolsters my belief that, for North Americans, there is no safe way unless each and every kind of food is tested for glyphosate. Someone with a shipload of cash can afford to test every spoonful of food (s)he eats for glyphosate. For the rest of us mere mortals, we either get our local governments to play ball and test the food we buy, or decide to cut chickpea off our menu, or agree to play Russian Roulette with the chickpea we eat.

For people living outside of North America – that’s a different planet, a different solar system, a different galaxy and a different constellation. Rules, observations and expectations therefore would be different for them. My findings, and subsequent writing of the book, is titled Poison Foods of North America. It deals primarily with North America, with some comparisons with foods that came from elsewhere and were sampled in Canada.

Readers will be well advised to be cautious and find their path through this nightmare crop.

Chlorothalonil in food and our disfunctional democracy

Was interviewed the other day by the US based USA Prepares Show (https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Z8W5SjHRHVI)

They wanted to know if I am happy with either a one hour interview or a two hour.
I personally think anything over 10 minutes gets to be boring for the people, so agreed to a one hour.
 
These folks came to know about me from German born New Brunswick farmer Werner Bock, who has been screaming hoarse about Canadian government poisoning its agriculture, its forests and its meadows for more than three decades, to the point where the government started harassing him and even putting him temporarily in a loony bin claiming he was mentally disturbed. Apparently, Werner knows everybody in North America. He found out my phone number a few years ago and usually calls me up every few months. He is well known to the radio show people and apparently told them to find me.
 
I personally am not too sure if radio talks are fruitful.
 
I know articles written in online and printed papers have their value in raising awareness. I know blog posts and social media have their value in raising awareness. I know youtube video, audio podcasts and radio shows have their value in raising awareness. I know seminars, March against Monsanto, and mock tribunals all have their value in raising awareness.
 
And yet, I am coming to the conclusion that all these “raising awareness” is pretty much useless, when I consider what result it has achieved in the western hemisphere, especially in North America, which is faced with the worst of this avalanche of food poisoning.
 
At this rate, we shall have a highly raised level of awareness in a few more decades, while we shall also all be dead from poisons – highly aware people that died from poison but decided to do nothing, other than being “aware”.
 
The reason for this contradiction, in my analysis, is that the western world in general, and North America in particular, is too full of people that are little more than armchair activists, and people that are addicted to “raising awareness” to millions more armchair activists.
 
To me, it is clear as the open sky, that the root of all this problem is a dysfunctional democracy that has been hijacked into a full blows fascism, while the addicted population still believes writing an article, or clicking a like button, or hanging out with this or that talking head will bring them close to Nirvana.
 
If we have a full blown fascism and our democracy is nothing more than a make belief facade, then we have a problem that is political in nature and has to be solved, if at all, by political means.
 
I am not a politician by nature. I hate politicians and consider their professions to be among the lowest of the low, very close to anti-GMO talking heads in fact. They all are there to make a living out of whatever the hot topic of the day is. They are not here to solve anybody’s problems.
 
So, as an activist that is fed up with arm chair activism of my friends, fed up with raising awareness, and fed up with local politicians at the municipal, provincial and federal level – the only option appears to be to try and influence more citizens to stop the bullshit, and start targeting politicians, and try to pull their pants off in public. Time is well past when I can still be polite and ask  politician with folded hands to “please sir, please madam, please look at this or that issue, please see these reports and please disclose that hidden data and please, please please please please …”
 
I am dome with that shit. But, I am not a revolutionary and hate violence and bloodshed. I also hate being an elected politician or the compromises that one needs to make in order to gain political office. I am also a serious disbeliever of the political party system. To me, political parties should be banned and only independents allowed to stand for election. That way, theoretically, each elected official works only according to wishes of his or her constituents and not according to any party leader or party whip. The very notion of a political party is, to me, unconstitutional and anti-democratic. Anyhow, hating politics as a profession and refusing anything outside the law, and fed up with “raising awareness” to a comatose citizenry, my options are limited as an activist.
 
What we have here is a failure of democracy not because politicians are crooks, which they generally are, but because the citizens are in coma. In democracy, even in a failing democracy, every fault of the system lies at the feet of the citizens, no matter how much folks may like to blame politicians or Monsanto or the devil. It is always the fault of the people to allow things to come to whoever it has come. And our citizens, in North America, are are almost incapable of rational thinking. It is as if they are in a coma or has already gone autistic and are incapable of any rational thinking.
 
I want other citizens to grab their politicians by the scruff of their necks, metaphorically, and give them one issue options – “ban glyphosate or your rear end is mine to kick”.
Meanwhile, here is a chart about “Chlorothalonil in foods as tested by CFIA, consolidated from over 65,000 tests and plotted on a logarithmic scale. I have not had the time to look deeper into it, but Canada and USA ranks high in these along with a few others like Guatemala, Mexico and China etc. Some of the worst individual samples have over 50,000 ppb of Chlorothalonil, such as Chinese Cabbage grown in Canada.
 
I shall eventually have time to break these down by nations and food types better. All this would be in my book, which may bloat from the current 400 pages to either closer to 1,000 pages, or be split into volume two.
 
This chart is only covering food types that had chlorothalonil average contamination level of over 20 ppb, and shows both the average contamination and the percentage contamination. So, for items that have very low percentage contamination and yet rather high average contamination – those foods have only a few samples with extremely high levels of Chorothalonil while the rest where clean. Good examples of these might be Fine Herbs, Chinese Cabbage (this was make in Canada), Plum, Apricot and Beet. It would therefore make sense to check if those very high levels of contamination in a few few samples are an indication of where they were grown etc etc.
 
Other food items where the percentage contamination is also high, might be candidates that folks aught to consider rejecting, or growing themselves, or buying organic.
 
Incidentally, all items in this chart are conventional. Lots of organic food types were also tested by CFIA. They all had zero or negligible amounts of Chlorothalonil. So, in this particular case, going organic only is safer. All that will appear in my book eventually. Its a work in progress.
 
The green line represents the concentration in ppb, in descending order from left to right, with corresponding percentage contamination in blue for each of these food types.
 
All that will come in due course. Meanwhile I have to figure out how to kick some more political rear ends and how to goad them, shame them, insult them, till they start responding. 
 
There are some animals that turn over and play dead when in trouble. If you take a stick and turn the animal right side up, it immediately turns over belly up again, to convince you that it is really dead. Our politicians are a master of that act.
 
Some of these should end up in my blogs but I am having some malware issues with the wordpress platform and need to solve those first so that future blogs come out OK.
 
PS I hope to catch up with Anthony Samsel sometime to catch up on the implications of having much chlorothalonil in food, especially what we consider as vegetables.
 
Tony Mitra

Glyphosate, 2,4-D, a radio show and our defunct political system

Foods tested for glyphosate, and also foods tested for 2,4-D total over 15,000 records. The chart below gives a brief overall readings of some food types that were noted to have both glyphosate as well as 2,4-D though not necessarily from the same sample or the same sample lot. Also, the graph is not region specific and covers a global average.

More specific details will follow.

The readings for glyphosate, in blue have a much higher level of concentration compared to 2,4-D, in green, the chart was drawn on logarithmic scale rather than linear scale, to bring the two curves closer to each other, so a visual comparison and perspective could be drawn. The chart was sorted with the 2,4-D readings in ascending order from left to right i the green curve, with corresponding glyphosate readings plotted in blue for each food type. Those foods that did not have value for both chemicals have been omitted. The chart only shows average concentration of the toxins. It does not show umber of samples for each type, nor the  percentage of samples that were dirty or the lower and higher extreme readings in each group.

Meanwhile, I have reached a decision – this issue of Canadians and Americans being slow poisoned perhaps a hundred times faster than anybody else anywhere else, is not a problem that can be solved by hanging out with famous talking heads of the world, either pro or anti-GMO. Also, while I hugely appreciate help from a dwindling number of scientists that are still able to speak and write about dangers of glyphosate – hanging out with scientists is not an end in itself. What is needed is citizen grassroots actions against the corruption in our political system that allows poison peddling schemes to pass off as food technology, forest management and environment protection system.
 
And to that end, I shall try my level best to show by example in an effort to bring this topic (of North American foods being the most poisonous on earth and that Canada produces the most toxic foods in the twenty thousand year history of agriculture) into the mainstream political debate and dialog. Whether I succeed or not – I am going to die trying.
 
To that end, I have had yet not fully satisfactory one on one exchange with two different candidates standing for the provincial election from my riding. Both of them did not know how to spell glyphosate, and had no idea about food toxicity or wildlife and ecological collapse ongoing as we speak. One of them (NDP) visited me at my home with his assistant to educate himself for one hour, and yet left confused and unsure if he is versed enough to bring this into the political debate.
 
Tomorrow, I go out to meet some other citizens in nearby towns, stand next to the road side billboards of candidates and make videos of talking into the camera, explaining how we do not have a functioning democracy, and that we have complete idiots standing for election to represent us and how this is not going to solve an iota of our problems unless the citizens take control of our political system and filter out all the billy goats out.
 
I have, during the last federal election – forced at least one toxic candidate (Green Party) to withdraw from the election because he was spraying the BC forests with glyphosate for twenty years and suddenly turned environmental minded to stand for election. I exposed the son of a bitch, drew flack from the green party, exposed him as a fraud in March against Monsanto at downtown Vancouver, and was happy to see the thug withdraw from the ballot.
In six months, I should have my book expanded to near a thousand pages, or perhaps have volume II to cover non-glyphosate pesticides in foods.
I am still having problem getting the historical trend on how the MRLs have been increased over time, for glyphosate as well as other chemicals. I have reason to believe none of those upward readjustments or MRLs are legal, and that there are absolutely no proof in possession with the government, that the safety limits could be raised.
 
I wonder how long it will take for the population to stop vacillating and demand the hidden safety data or drag these good for nothing elected primates by the scruff of their necks and tossing them into the ocean to replace them with proper, rational homo sapiens.
How long ?
A radio show
Was interviewed for an hour on US based Radio Show USA Prepares. The first hour is with me.
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Z8W5SjHRHVI

Green Party Responds

I am determined to try my best to bring the issue of glyphosate and the Canadian Foods being the most toxic on earth, to the mainstream political discourse. I have not been too successful so far, as politicians in general as well as mainstream media, seems to have developed a case of indigestion when it comes to facing this issue.

Nonetheless, the effort continues, as part of our citizen’s duty, to be vigorously involved in our political process and try to force the candidates to address real concerns of citizens intend of talking on manufactured issues.

I have already written to three candidates of my riding, cover in earlier blogs. These were from the Liberal, NDP and BC Greens party. Two of them, the Liberal and the NDP, did not even bother to respond, which has convinced me never to vote for a candidate that ignores you.

But more than that, I have tried to lead by example so other citizens would follow and try to ask direct questions to the candidates, especially why people of western Canada are subjected to the most toxic foods on earth.

I made a few videos on this already.

The first one is here – a ten minute video about why and how I found Western Canada to be the epicentre of toxic foods.

The next, my explanation on why I wrote the book on glyphosate contamination of foods based on CFIA records, and why I do not go with the mainstream media trying to whitewash the results – an 8 minute video.

Next, a letter to the BC Greens Leader. – a 3 minute video.

And finally, a response from the BC Greens candidate from my riding – another under 3 minute video.

As I was telling someone in email today, I am convinced that our problem is rooted more to the corruption in my political process and less to do with Monsanto or any other entity, and it is our duty, as a citizen, to grab this political beast by the horn and shake it till it starts piddling.

Stay tuned.

A letter to the candidates

North Delta Candidates, Tuesday, April 18, 2017April 2017
 
To: Jacquie Miller, BC Greens : dln@bcgreens.ca
Ravi Kahlon, NDP : ravi.kahlon@bcndp.ca
Scott Hamilton – Liberal : scott.hamilton@bcliberals.com
 
Ms & Mr. Candidates,
 
I am writing this joint and public letter to all of you, as a voter from North Delta, raising a serious concern and a serious question that I have failed to get a response from so far from any candidate. I have separately written to two of you Mr Kahlon and Mr. Hamilton, by email, and have not received any response. I had not asked Ms Miller as I did not know her contacts at the time.

Jacqui Miller – Greens Candidate

The concern relates to the fact that Canada appears to be producing the most toxic foods on earth with regard to poisoning with glyphosate, the active ingredient in the weed killer Roundup. I came to learn of this after analyzing for several months, near 8,000 records of foods collected within Canada, by the Canadian Food Inspection Agency (CFIA) covering food samples from over sixty countries. My findings can be checked in a book I published on Amazon recently, titled – Poison Foods of North America.
 
While Canada produces the most toxic foods on earth, foods collected in western Canada proved to be even more toxic than foods available elsewhere in Canada. Therefore western Canada appears to be the epicentre of poisonous foods on the planet.
I include a few references in my email in case anyone is at all interested.
I have reason to believe glyphosate is a key ingredient responsible for an epidemic level rise of all sorts of auto-immune diseases across the land in Canada as well as a steep decline in wildlife while our elected politicians continue to stick their head in the sand.
 
My simple question to all of you is – what are you prepared to do about this ?
 
This public letter may be reproduced into a video, in order to circulate among other voters of this and other ridings within and beyond BC, as an effort to get the people to rise up against this tendency by entrenched and aspiring politicians of avoiding uncomfortable questions.

Scott Hamilton – Liberal incumbent

 
To inspire other voters of my riding as well as across the land, myself and other friends might read this letter, or speak independently, in short videos standing next to the bill boards of you and other candidates and circulate them on social media, hoping for two results:
 
a) to get the candidates to actually address serious concerns of voters instead of talking about manufactured issues.
 
b) get more citizens to stand up and ask similar hard questions to the candidates, especially about Canadians having to eat the most poisonous foods on earth.

Ravi Kahlon, NDP Candidate

Should we make such video, they would be circulated on social media, and on blogs, and I should be sending you copies for your reference. If we continue to get no response from the candidates, that too will be aired through alternative media. If we get meaningful responses from some candidates, we intend to circulate that too.
 
I shall be pleased to hear if you have any response on this.
 
I am including one of the near 400 tables and slides from my book for your reference.
 
Good day.
 
Tony Mitra
10891 Cherry Lane, Delta, BC, V4E 3L7, Canada
Links:

My book is not about philosophy

I self published the book ‘Poison Foods of North America‘ late in March 2017, covering my analysis of near 8,000 records of foods tested by the Canadian Food Inspection Agency, on presence of Glyphosate in food.

Meanwhile, I believe CFIA has come out with a report on its findings.

And now, I am told by friends that lots of folks are making lots of posts on the web here and there, about it, and I am told most of these reports might be projecting a different view and that the CFIA report appears to make my book look bad.

Well, I do not believe CFIA report will be in contradiction of my analysis, since we are both presumably looking at the same data. However, I fully expect our government to project an interpretation of the records so as to project an image that Canadian foods are fine. I expect it to highlight what might appear to look good, and not highlight things that are uncomfortable to talk about for a government.

The reason I wrote the book is completely different. I found alarming facts in the records, starting with

  • conventional seed based foods desiccated with glyphosate being way more toxic than genetically engineered roundup ready crops.
  • North America (Canada & the United States) producing the most toxic foods on earth.
  • Canada is the producer of worse foods than even the United States, which makes Canada the producer of most poisonous foods on earth.
  • Western Canada, with the prairies are where the most toxic foods can be found within Canada. This makes western Canada the epicentre of poisonous foods in the planet.
  • Lastly, navigating through our food system to avoid being slow poisoned has become very difficult for a person that is unaware of the toxicity levels in different kinds of foods.

So, this book for those that wish to have a tool to navigate their way through this toxic mine field in our food web. This book is for those that have already made up their mind that glyphosate is a seriously harmful weed killing chemical to be in their food.

This book is not for discussing philosophy of poisons in foods. For those that wish to engage in philosophical discussions, they may find other places to engage in exchanging views.

Philosophy is good. But my book is not about philosophy. The attached seven minute video explains the same in my own voice.

Thanks.


https://www.amazon.ca/POISON-FOODS-NORTH-AMERICA-navigating-ebook/dp/B06XS4Y6H2/ref=sr_1_1?ie=UTF8&qid=1491597662&sr=8-1&keywords=poison+foods+of+north+america

Glyphosate in food – the good, the bad and the ugly

Excerpts from the book – Poison Foods of North America.


The top five origins whose food samples were the most in number as tested by CFIA are: United States, Unknown, Canada, India and China.

The chart below gives one view of the average glyphosate content in foods from these five origins, calculated as the total glyphosate in all foods divided by the number of food samples that actually contained glyphosate, excluding the clean samples, for each region. This represents the average level of contamination among the contaminated samples. The averages for all samples is the basis by which contamination levels are calculated for the rest of the book. The median line represents sort of the average, but is weighted according to the number of samples. Since number of samples are the highest from the United States, ‘Unknown” and Canada, the median is more influenced by them than by India or China. If there were equal number of samples from all these regions and more so from other countries from the world, the median would have been much lower as an indication of world average. In the chart below, this dotted red line carries a value of 204 as a whole number.

The good the bad and the ugly (median)

Thus, the United States and ‘Unknown’ are seen as sort of average, not an ideal average though. Canada is rated as bad because of having levels of contamination in its food that is 50% worse than even the median. India and China, having much lower levels of contamination, are rated good.

The table/chart below is one way to explain how foods available in Canada that originated in Canada, Unknown, the United States, India and China compare between them, with regard to glyphosate contamination.

The table gives two sets of values for each region. the chart superimposed over the table presents the same two values for each region.

These two values are average level of glyphosate contamination for each region, but calculated in under two different criteria, using two different ratio.

The bottom line, in green represents the values in the second column from left, titled “overall ppb”. This means, all the readings of glyphosate from samples from the region that had any glyphosate, was added, and then divided by the total number of samples, including samples that had no glyphosate.

The upper line, in black, represents the last column from left, where the same total amount of glyphosate was divided by only the number of samples that had any glyphosate.

In other words, the bottom line shows average glyphosate for every sample of the region, irrespective of if they were clean samples or dirty samples, while the top line is the average glyphosate content for only those samples that did have some glyphosate.

These two lines would merge in cases where a region had no clean sample at all, and all the samples contained some glyphosate, or where 100% of the samples were contaminated.

Both of them give varied but statistically significant indication for a consumer, about foods from which countries that are available in Canada, contain how much glyphosate. Foods imported from China ranked fifth number of samples, and proves to be the best food with the least amount of glyphosate in them, in either representation.

This may not be what the people of China are eating, but this is how those varieties that are exported by them to Canada, compare with the rest.


Meanwhile I made a 3 minute video on who the book Poison Foods of North America is for.